Internet of Things (IoT)
The explosive growth of the Internet of Things (IoT) is changing our world. IoT is an emerging topic of technical, social, and economic significance. It is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines provided with unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction
IoT implementations use different technical communications models, each with its own characteristics. Four common communications models described by the Internet Architecture Board include: Device-to-Device, Device-to-Cloud, Device-to-Gateway, and Back-End Data-Sharing. These models highlight the flexibility in the ways that IoT devices can connect and provide value to the user.
The internet of things helps people live and work smarter offering smart devices to automate homes. IoT also provides businesses with a real-time look into how their systems really work, bringing insights into everything from the performance of machines to supply chain and logistics operations. As such, IoT is one of the most important technologies of everyday life, and it will continue to pick up steam as more businesses realize the potential of connected devices to keep them competitive.
Projections for the impact of IoT on the Internet and economy are impressive, with some anticipating as many as 100 billion connected IoT devices and a global economic impact of more than $11 trillion by 2025.
Of late, Computer Science and Information Technology graduates are going after IoT courses. This field is developing at a rapid pace in India and is expected to generate a high amount of job opportunities in the future.
In India, IoT courses are available in the following main formats:
- B. Tech / BSc / BCA
- M. E. / M. Tech.
- PG Diploma
In addition to the above, there are various short-term courses available by government and private institutions.
Following skill sets are required to become an IoT engineer
- Business Intelligence
- Communication protocols
- Embedded System interfacing and programming.
- Security and Data Analytics
- UI/UX Design
- Understanding of different protocols related to networking.
- Web application development.
- Web server setting and configuration.
The basic eligibility requirement for admissions to any B. Tech. / BSc / BCA programme is:
- Candidates must have passed Class 10+2 exam from a recognised board with Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics as core subjects.
- They must also have secured a minimum aggregate mark of 60% in the above subjects combined.
The eligibility criteria may vary from institute to institute.
JEE Main is the main entrance examination for BE/BTech admission in important institutes including National Institute of Technology (NIT), Indian Institute of Information Technology (IIIT), Government Funded Technical Institutes (GFTI), etc.
JEE Advanced is the entrance for BE/BTech admission in Indian Institute of Technology (IIT).
GATE Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering is the entrance for ME/MTech postgraduate programs
State Level Engineering College admission is based on state level entrance exams, for example:
- APEAMCET Andhra Pradesh
- COMEDK Consortium of Medical, Engineering and Dental Colleges of Karnataka.
- KCET Karnataka Common Entrance Test
- KEAM Kerala Engineering Agriculture and Medicine
- PGCET Karnataka Post Graduate Common Entrance Test
- TNPCEE Tamil Nadu Professional Courses Entrance Examination
For most state level entrance examinations, 50% weightage is for Board Exams.
Private university / college entrance examinations
- BITSAT Birla Institute of Technology & Science
- CUET Christ University Entrance Test
- JET Jain Entrance Test
- KITEE KIIT University
- MET Manipal Entrance Test
- SRMJEEE SRM University
- VITEE Vellore Institute of Technology
In every area where there are internet-connected sensors, IoT technologists will be in high demand. Here are a few common roles in the IoT field today.
- Applications Engineer- IoT mbed
- Azure Cloud Architect (IoT)
- Big Data Lead (IoT)
- C++ Software Developer (Smart Lighting IoT)
- Chief IoT Officer
- Connected Spaces IoT Consultant
- Data Engineer Sensors and IoT Applications
- Data Scientist – IoT
- Development Engineer, Mobile (IoT PaaS)
- Director of DevOps – Sensors, Analytics, and IoT
- IoT Cloud Software Developer
- IoT Developer
- IoT Infrastructure Architect
- IoT Solutions Architect
- IoT System Administrator
- Java Developer (IoT & M2M)
- Product Manager – IoT Smart Cities
- Research Director – Information Assurance and IoT Security
- Segment Marketing Manager – IoT Technologies
- Senior Mobile QA Engineer (IoT, PaaS)
- Technician IoT Devices Support
- Test Engineer
- Vulnerability Cyber Engineer
There are demands for engineering graduates in several domains including the private and public sector. Several companies recruit engineers in various capacities. Here are some examples of top companies recruiting BE/BTech graduates
- Accenture Services
- Goldman Sachs
- HCL Technologies
- Hindustan UniLiver Ltd
- IBM Global Services
- Infosys Technologies
- ITC Limited
- JP Morgan
- Larson & Tubro
- Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd
- Procter & Gamble
- TATA Consultancy
Indian Institute of Technology (IITs) are the most prestigious institutes. There are 23 IITs across India, with a total intake of over 11,000 for BTech undergraduate programs in various branches. IITs also offer postgraduate program (MTech) and Bachelor-Master dual degree (BTech + MTech in 5 years) and Doctoral degree (PhD).
Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs) are autonomous institutions offering technical education focused on the Information Technology and Communication Studies. IIITs have gained popularity among students are considered among the top colleges only after Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and National Institutes of Technology (NITs). However, there are a total of 25 IIITs in India, five of which are listed as the Institutes of National Importance while the remaining 18 IIITs are set up on the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model
National Institutes of Technology (NITs) is there one in most states. There are 31 NITs with a total intake of over 10,000 for BTech undergraduate programs. Most NITs offer MTech as well as Bachelor-Master dual degrees.
Government Funded Technical Institutes (GFTI). There are 23 GFTIs with a total intake of over 9,000 seats for BTech.
In every state in India, there are Government Engineering Colleges, Aided Engineering Colleges and Self-Financing Engineering Colleges. State Level Engineering Colleges are available in this link.
Before joining a course, please ensure that the course in the given institution is approved by All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE).
Questions & Answers
Q) What are the things in IoT?
A) IoT things include sensors, controllers, actuators, edge computing, networking, device management, connectivity management, data management, applications and cloud computing.
Q) What is the difference between machine learning and IoT?
A) IoT is used to collect real world data and act on it based on set rules. e.g. track heart-rate and upload daily. Machine learning uses big data to improve its performance over time by creating its own rules. e.g. Predictive analysis for patient health before emergencies occur. This can save lives and reduce health costs.
Q) What is the relation between big data and IoT?
A) IoT creates the information that big data can use. e.g. Tesla cars are IoT enabled with cellular Internet connections. This allows updates while the cars are charging. It also allows telemetry of the car activities to be uploaded to Tesla. There is over 5 billion miles of car big data with Tesla. This can be used to update existing cars and help design better cars in the next model. This information can also be used to adapt the service schedules based on car use. Tesla IoT updates have been used to extend the range of cars in disaster zones like cyclones and hurricanes.
Q) How does sensor data use prediction in the IoT application?
A) IoT can measure temperature of motors to help predict servicing. IoT can measure airflow to help indicate when filters need cleaning. IoT can measure vibration to indicate machine lubrication needs or bearing replacements. IoT can measure vehicle distance traveled to determine when the next service is actually needed.
Q) What is the Industrial Internet of Things?
A) The Industrial Internet provides a way to get better visibility and insights into the companies operation and assets through integration of machine sensors, middleware, software, and back-end cloud compute and storage systems. Several factors help IIoT like cheap and accurate sensors, self aware edge computers, big data analytics available, predictive maintenance is possible and finer tolerance manufacturing reduces faults. These small improvement add up to big savings and an improved bottom line.
Q) What are 10 real world examples of IoT?
A) Voice activated assistants like Amazon Echo, Google Chromecast to make your TV smart, Samsung Home Monitoring Kit for house automation, Phillips Hue for lighting control, Nest Learning Thermostat, Smappee Energy Monitor, Zmodo WiFi security system, Fitbit wearable, Fitbit scales, Acurite Weather Station and Ring WiFi Video doorbell.