Agricultural Science is the study of different practices and techniques of farming and which will explore the ethical, environmental and practical solutions to feed a global population that continues to grow exponentially. It is a part of our life. The term Agriculture is derived from the latin words Ager which means land or field and Cultura / Cultus which means cultivation. Agriculture is the foundation upon which all civilizations have been built. It is a part of our life.
Agricultural Science provides knowledge in various fields like Crop production, Agribusiness, Food chain technology, Animal feed industry, Alternative energy sources, Animal sciences, Agri enterprise development, Conservation and protection of environment etc. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), agriculture remains central to the world economy and more than 60% of the world’s population depends on agriculture for survival
The field of study of Agricultural Science lies in the vast range which varies from diploma courses to research. Some important graduate, post-graduate programs offered under Agricultural science are given below.
B.Sc. in Agriculture/ B.Sc( Hons) in Agriculture:This is a 4 year under- graduate course which is considered as a professional degree by the Govt of India.
The curriculum is very broad and inter-disciplinary covering various subjects like Plant pathology, Entomology, Plant physiology, Soil science, Genetics, Plant breeding , Livestock breeding and management etc.
M.Sc. in Agriculture: It is a two year postgraduate course which is offered in many recognized universities throughout the country.
M.Sc. Agriculture offers a number of specializations like Agronomy, Horticulture, Forestry, Plant Pathology, Agricultural Biotechnology etc.
M.Phil.: Master of Philosophy is a postgraduate academic research programme that is of two years duration.
Ph.D.: Doctor of Philosophy in Agriculture is a 3 year doctorate course.
Required Skills and Aptitude
Agriculture is an enormous field with various specializations which requires different skill sets as follows.
- Environmental consciousness
- Interest related to plants and animals
- High observation skills
- Keen interest in applying science to the food industry
- Ability to adopt new technological innovations
- Able to predict new challenges and meet the changing consumer needs.
- Good interpersonal and management skills.
It is required for a science background to pursue a course in Agriculture. Basic requirements for admission such as aggregate marks, eligibility etc will vary according to institutes/ universities. The eligibility required for different levels of courses are as mentioned below.
B.Sc. Agriculture: Students should have completed 10+2 or any equivalent examination with a minimum score of 50% aggregate marks in science stream with subjects physics, chemistry, mathematics and biology /agriculture. Apart from this, students who have completed their intermediate in the agriculture field can also take admission for the course. The admissions are either based on merit or through entrance examinations at national level, institution level or a state level.
Candidates applying for Agricultural courses in Kerala must qualify in NEET UG entrance examination conducted by the National Testing Agency (NTA). A separate application form must be filled in through CEE official website to be considered for admission to the course. 15% of seats will be admitted through ICAR AIEEA UG national level exam (Indian Council of Agricultural Research All India Entrance Examination Undergraduate).
M.Sc. in Agriculture: For admission to this course, one has to complete graduation in Agriculture, horticulture, forestry or any other relevant course from a recognized university with a minimum aggregate of 50% marks.The admissions are either based on merit or through entrance examinations.
M.Phil.: Candidates can pursue M.Phil. course if they have completed their master’s degree in a related field in which they want to pursue the M.Phil. course. Apart from this, some colleges also specify that candidates should have secured at least 55%(45%-50% for reserved category) marks at the postgraduate level in the subject in which they want to pursue the M.Phil..
Ph.D.: Candidates who have completed their postgraduate degree in Agriculture or relevant field with 55% of marks are eligible to pursue a doctorate degree.
Admissions to Agriculture courses are mostly based on entrance exams.
B.Sc. Agriculture: Followings are the common entrance exams for graduate level admissions.
• Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) – AIEEA UG
The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is the apex body for coordinating, guiding and managing research and education in agriculture in the entire country under the aegis of DARE, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.They are entrusted with the responsibility of conducting All India Entrance Examinations for admission to UG, PG & Ph.D. Courses in AUs(Agricultural University) and awarding of scholarships and fellowships to the NTA from 2019 onwards. For detailed information, refer information bulletin ICAR-AIEEA UG
• NEET UG
• AGRICET (Agriculture Common Entrance Test that is conducted by Acharya N. G. Ranga University)
• CG PAT (Chhattisgarh Pre Agriculture Test)
• GB Pant University Admissions (GBPUAT)
• Indira Gandhi Agricultural University (IGKV) CET.
• MP PAT ( Madhya Pradesh Pre Agriculture Test )
• AP EAMCET (Engineering, Agriculture and Medical Common Entrance Test, Andhra Pradesh)
• BCECE (Bihar Combined Entrance Competitive Examination)
• JCECE (Jharkhand Combined Entrance Competitive Exam)
• BHU UET (Banaras Hindu University Undergraduate Entrance Test)
• OUAT (Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology)
• UPCATET (Uttar Pradesh Combined Agriculture and Technology Entrance Test)
M.Sc. in Agriculture: Some of the major entrance exams for PG courses in Agriculture is listed below:
• ICAR AIEEA PG.
• JNU CEEB ( for M.Sc Biotechnology, M.Sc Agricultural Biotechnology)
• MCAER PG CET ( Maharashtra Agricultural University)
• CUCET (Central Universities)
• PAU MET (Punjab Agricultural University)
• KAU (Kerala Agricultural University)
M.Phil.: Some universities conduct Common Entrance Test (CET) for M.Phil admissions.
Ph.D.: Most colleges have their own eligibility criteria, admission procedures are based on merit list or entrance exam.
Some of the job profiles in the field of agriculture are listed below
1. Agriculture Officer
2. Plantation Manager
3. Quality Assurance Officers in Agriculture field
4. Field Officer
5. Agriculture Development Officer
6. Specialist in different Krishi Vigyan Kendras
7. Territory Manager (Agriculture)
8. Extension Officers
10. Research Scientist
here are lots of job opportunities in the field of Agriculture under both government and private agencies. A graduate/ post graduate in Agriculture can enter a wide range of challenging and rewarding careers in areas like agriculture, forest, environment, food industry, animal husbandry, soil and water management, fertilize, teaching and research. They can start their own business ventures such as nurseries, farms, greenhouses etc. Followings are some of the firms where jobs for Agriculture experts are available:
1. DuPont India
2. National Agro Industry
3. Godrej Agrovet Limited
4. Poabs Organic Estates
5. Monsanto India
6. Lemken India Agro Equipments Private Limited
7. Rallis India Limited (subsidiary of Tata Chemicals )
8. Nuziveedu Seeds Limited
9. JK Agri Genetics Ltd
10. Nath Bio-genes Ltd
Following are the top institutes offering Agriculture courses in India.
1. Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), Delhi
2. Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU), Hyderabad
3. CAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal
4. University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS), Bangalore
5. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore
6. Kerala Agricultural University (KAU)
7. G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology (GBPUAT), Uttarakhand
8. Punjab Agricultural University (PAU), Ludhiana
9. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut
10. Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, Raipur
11. Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
M.Phil.: Some universities which offer M.Phil In Agriculture are given below:
1. Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) , New Delhi
2. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore
3. Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University,Guntur
4. Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana
5. National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal
Ph.D.: Some institutions offering PhD programs are listed below.
1. ICAR – Indian Council of Agricultural research
2. KAU – Kerala Agricultural University
( http://www.kau.in/academic-programme-group/doctoral-degree )
3. GB Pant University, Uttarakhand
4. Institute of Agricultural Business, Bikaner
5. Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur
6. Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Pune
Questions & Answers
1. What is ICAR AIEEA UG? What is the eligibility criteria to appear for AIEEA UG?
Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) All India Entrance Examination (AIEEA) Undergraduate (UG) is the national level entrance exam for admission to UG agriculture, horticulture, forestry, community science, food nutrition and dietetics, sericulture, dairy technology, food technology, biotechnology and related courses in agricultural universities on 15% of the university seats (100% seats in few colleges too). AIEEA UG is conducted yearly by the National Testing Agency.
Candidates should have passed 10+2 exams in science stream with subjects Physics,Chemistry, Maths and Biology/ Agriculture from a recognized board with an aggregate score of at least 50% (if you are belonging to general / OBC NCL / UPS category) or 40% (if you are belonging to SC / ST / PC category).
2. What are the different Govt Exams for an agriculture graduate?
An agriculture graduate can appear for all UPSC/PSC exams which require graduation as a minimum degree. One can apply for state agriculture exams like Agriculture Officer, Agriculture Land Officer post exclusively for agriculture graduates. One can also attend JRF or SRF exams conducted by UGC or ICAR for M.SC Agriculture. Another opportunity is to attend banking exams like IBPS-AFO (Agriculture Field Officer).